C'escacs Glossary

Adjust — I adjust!
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The French term j'adoube! is internationally known.

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Advanced pawn
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Algebraic notation

Algebraic notation is a chess notation system used to transcribe moves so that they can be accurately reproduced later. The notation for C'escacs is an extension of the algebraic notation (AN), which we call CTL-AN, because of the use of CTL coordinates. The alternative notation CTL-FAN (Columns and Transversal Lines - FAN, Figurine Algebraic Notation), uses the Unicode characters specific to chess pieces, instead of identifying letters.

The formalism is further concretised in the computer game exchange format, CTL-PGN (Columns and Transversal Lines - PGN, Portatil Game Notation), where game identification tags are required to be added, and many others are optionally supported to add additional information. But the labels also allow the incorporation of functional information, such as the previous situation of a game being resumed, using the TLPD notation - Transversal Lines Position Description, a notation very similar to the FEN notation (Forsyth-Edwards Notation).

It is not a particularly appropriate name for algebraic notation, as it has no connection with algebra, but traditionally the name has been retained.

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Almogavar
Almogàvers catalans. via Wikimedia Commons
Pere el Gran al Coll de Panissars. Recull el moment en que el rei Pere ordena als almogàvers que aturin els atacs per deixar passar el rei francès, Felip III, que moribund, es bat en retirada. Bartomeu Ribó i Terriz, via Wikimedia Commons
Piece that was the first substitute for the Prince, in the first versions of C'escacs. It was inspired by the Omega Chess Champion, but adapted to the hexagonal board, and with the moves simplified to eliminate the additional complexity introduced by the jumps. It wasn't the piece the game needed, either.

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Archbishop

Capablanca's chess piece. For the C'escacs equivalent, see Pegasus.

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Battery
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Bishop
Alfil dels anomenats Escacs de Carlemany. Foto: Siren-Com, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
En molts idiomes, encara es preserva el nom d'Elefant per l'Alfil. Foto: rezbaderevo.ru
Bisbes dels escacs de l'illa de Lewis (datats aprox en 1200). British Museum, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
El Camell fent la funció d'Alfil, en uns escacs indis antics. Foto: Chaturaji, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The Bishop is a minor piece that can move any number of squares diagonally, but cannot jump over other pieces. Its diagonal move makes it to be colour bounded, so it can only reach one colour hexes.

In all hexagonal chess variants which use hextilled chessboards, the board consists of hexes of three different colours, and because of this, and being the Bishop a colourbound piece, three bishops are generally used for each player, providing one available for each colour. This is the case of C'escacs, Gliński's hexagonal chess and McCooey's hexagonal chess.

Valuation

To be a colourbound piece makes the Bishop to be a weak piece in the three coloured hextilled chessboard, much weaker than in orthodox chess.

Two Bishops cannot checkmate a lone King, and a minimum of one Pegasus and one Bishop, or one Pegasus and one Knight is required.

Notation

The recommended letter for the Bishop in C'escacs notation is J, representing a courtier, as in card games: Jack (Knave). The notation J is not directly linked to any language for the Bishop.

The aliases A, B, F and L are also accepted. Many aliases are accepted due to the great diversity of names in the different languages, and the most meaningful and least confusing ones have been preserved.

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Black

The name of the player who moves second, although his pieces, always called the black pieces, are sometimes of a different colour (usually dark).

Similarly, the dark hexagonal tiles on the hextilled chequerboard are called the black hexagonal tiles, black hexes, even though they are not literally black, but dark.

  • We speak of black as opposed to white, both for the pieces and for the hexes. The third colour of the hexes on a hextilled chequerboard is called colour, as opposed to black and white.

The Bishop moving through the black hexes is often referred to as the black Bishop.

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Castling

It is the only chess move that simultaneously moves two pieces of the same player, in the case of C'escacs, up to three pieces. The move consists of the King's leap complemented by the displacement of one (single castling) or both rooks (double castling). This move can only be made if the following conditions are met:

  • It is the first movement of all the pieces (two or three) involved.
  • At the moment of the move there is no attack on the King (no check).
  • The target hexes are free; a capture cannot be made on a castling.
  • The Rook can make the orthogonal movement, without being hindered by any part.
  • Of course, the King cannot be left in a threatened hex.

Strategy

It can be said that, in C'escacs, castling allows the evasive move of the King's leap, and an additional move of the Rooks, which can collaborate in the defence or in an attack. Its strategic value is much less than it represents in orthodox chess, and is always very much conditioned by the position of the moment. It is not very convenient to have a planned development to make this move, although reserving the option may be convenient.

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Charlemagne chessmen
Escacs de Carlemany. I, Sailko, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

A chess set from the end of the 11th century, incorrectly called Charlemagne's chess, as it is from a later period and he never knew it. Made in Italy, most probably in Salerno, the helmets and shields allow us to identify Norman and Byzantine troops, who fought against each other in the Norman conquest of southern Italy in those years. In addition to its historical interest, the game is notable for three features:

  • The Bishops are represented as elephants, which is the original representation of this piece, from the Xaturanga.
  • The Rooks are represented as chariots, chariots drawn by four knights, the chariot also being the original representation of this piece, from the Xaturanga.
  • The representation of the Queen already appears, even though the piece still moved as a Ferz.

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Chesspiece identifying letters

Each of the chess pieces is identified by a letter. This letter, in C'escacs, and in the algebraic notation CTL-AN, is invariant, regardless of the language. Some alternative letters are also defined, which require consistent use, using the same letter all throughout the game, and only the alternative letters already predefined; in CTL-PGN the declaration of the alternative letter has to be incorporated at the beginning to be used, overriding the standard identification letter.

There are also Unicode chess characters, which can be used in a similar way to the alternative letters. In this case, it must be taken into consideration that there is a different character to represent each piece in its version for the white set, and a different one for the same piece in the black set. Algebraic notation using CTL-FAN Unicode chess characters uses a different character for each piece and colour.

Pawn Elephant (halberdier) Bishop Knight Pegasus Rook Wyvern (dragon) Queen King
♙ ♟ ☖ ☗ ♗ ♝ ♘ ♞ 🩐 🩓 ♖ ♜ 🩏 🩒 ♕ ♛ ♔ ♚
P E J N G R V D K
A, B, F, L C, S T W Q

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Center

The C'escacs hextilled chequerboard has a central hex, the F14. It is located in the central column F, and in the transversal median line 14. This central hex offers the maximum orthogonal mobility of the hextilled chequerboard, and great diagonal mobility, although not the maximum (it is superior, for example, in the six orthogonally adjacent hexes, and in the six diagonally adjacent ones).

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Central file (central column)

Column F is the column with the most hexes (fifteen). It starts at line zero, and ends at line twenty-eight. The numbering of the lines advances in pairs, because the odd lines have no hexes in the central column. It divides the hextilled chequerboard between the kingside and the :

Queenside columns
P, T, A, B, C, D, E. Left for White, right for Black.
Kingside columns
G, H, I, K, L, X, Z. Right for White, left for Black.

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Check
A move in which the opposing King is threatened.
  • During a game the opponent must be warned aloud with the word "check".
  • In any written transcript of the move this must be indicated.
The threatened King is said to be in check.

Notation

At the end of the movement the symbol + is added.

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Checkmate
Check in which the King has no option to evade the threat.

Notation

Even though it is a specific case of Check, it is the end of the game, and has its own symbol. It is indicated by the symbol #.

Valuation

  • For a win for White:
    3-0
  • For a win for Black:
    0-3

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Colour

The third colour of the hexes on the C'escacs hextilled chequerboard is simply called Colour, even if the hexes are not coloured, but they must be of a medium shade, between the shades of white and black.

  • We speak of Coloured hexes, as opposed to Black and White.

The central hex of the hextilled chequerboard is coloured It is the point of maximum orthogonal control of the board, but not of maximum diagonal control, since the surrounding hexes slightly increase the diagonal control.

The Bishop that moves through the coloured hexes is called the coloured Bishop.

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Colourbound
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Column (lengthwise file)

Designation of the lengthwise files, which run from the middle of White's hextilled chequerboard to the middle of Black's.

The central column, or central file divides the hextilled chequerboard into the kingside and the queenside; the columns, or lengthwise files, are perpendicular to the cross-lines.

The hexes in a column are numbered in pairs, because the cross-lines do not cross all the columns.

Even columns
Columns of even lines; they are crossed by even cross-lines, and the hexes have even numbering.
Odd columns
Columns of odd-numbered lines; they are crossed by odd-numbered cross-lines, and the hexes are odd-numbered.

Notation

Each column is named after a letter. The eleven middle columns keep the name of Gliński's hexagonal chess, from A to L, except for J, which Gliński did not include to avoid confusion. In C'escacs four new columns are incorporated: P and T are before A, and columns X and Z after L.

The names of the columns must always be written in capital letters. In order, their names are:

P, T, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, X, Z.

The central column F is a column of even lines; the even columns are: T, B, D, F, H, K, X. The odd columns are: P, A, C, E, G, I, L, Z.

Any hexes are identified by the Column and cross-line to which they belong.

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Court
A diamond-shaped space bounded by the player's pawns. The two flank pawns, the only ones that are not defended, remain outside, while all the other pieces are positioned inside the court at the start of the game.
  • For White, the rhombus: B4 – F8 – K4 – F0
  • For Black, the rhombus: B24 – F20 – K24 – F28

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Court piece
The most powerful C'escacs pieces, as opposed to the troop. Specifically:

Observe that the hexes of the court pieces initial position are named the court.

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Cross-line

Name given to the transversal lines, which are lines that cross the hextilled chequerboard from left to right.

The cross-lines act by measuring the advance from the white half to the black half, a division which effectively takes place on line fourteen, a line which is called the midline: the seven hexes which form the midline are equidistant from both sides.

Notation

The cross-lines or transversal lines are numbered from zero to twenty-eight. The first (zero) and the last line (twenty-eight) are lines with only one hex. Any hexes are identified by the column and the cross-line to which they belong.

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CTL coordinates

CTL is the acronym for Columns and Transversal Lines, a system of coordinates for a hextille. It is the system used in C'escacs to identify a hex: a letter denotes the Column, also known as lengthwise file, and a number indicates the cross-line.

In C'escacs each hex is identified by the letter of the column followed by the number of the cross-line to which it belongs.

It is also sometimes referred to as double or doubled system, because the numbering of the hexes in the columns advances in pairs, since a column only crosses odd or even lines.

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CTL-AN

CTL - Algebraic Notation is an algebraic chess notation using CTL coordinates; it is the algebraic notation of C'escacs.

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CTL-FAN

Columns and Transversal Lines - Figurine Algebraic Notation; algebraic notation identical to CTL-AN, except that it uses the Unicode characters specific to the chess pieces, instead of the identifying letters.

Unlike CTL-AN notation, a different character is used for the pieces depending on the colour, with nine characters identifying the nine white pieces and nine for the black pieces. The identifying letters are simpler to use for annotations that make people; in addition, Unicode symbols may require a larger font to clearly distinguish between the Wyvern (Dragon), the Pegasus and the Knight.

Pawn Elephant Bishop Knight Pegasus Rook Wyvern Queen King
Halberdier Castle Dragon
P E J N G R V D K
♙ ♟ ☖ ☗ ♗ ♝ ♘ ♞ 🩐 🩓 ♖ ♜ 🩏 🩒 ♕ ♛ ♔ ♚
U+2659, U+265F U+2616, U+2617 U+2657, U+265D U+2658, U+265E U+1FA50, U+1FA53 U+2656, U+265C U+1FA4F, U+1FA52 U+2655, U+265B U+2654, U+265A

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CTL-PGN

Game recording with CTL-PGN notation is similar to PGN (Portable Game Notation) format. It adds information about the game (meta-information) to the algebraic notation using labels, as well as comments and variations to the moves.

It allows the exchange of games with computers. It is a format for plain text files (nowadays Unicode, encoded in UTF), which prefixes algebraic notation (CTL-AN) with tags to add meta-information. A tag is written on one line, enclosed in square brackets [ … ], and it contains a word as the tag identifier, followed by text in inverted commas, which is the value of the tag.

After the tags appears the transcription of the moves in algebraic notation, where comments, written between curly brackets { … }, and variations are allowed. Variations are alternative moves written in parenthesis ( … ), and can be nested, as variations of variations.

Examples

[Variant "C'escacs"] [Event "CG"] [Site "Barcelona, Catalunya ESP"] [Date "2021-06-04"] [Round "‐"] [White "Mestre, Rut"] [Black "Sasal, Cesc"] [Result "*"] [Lang "en"] { Introduction to C'escacs } 1. E7‐E13, E21‐E15 2. EE5-E11, G21‐G15 { @W: E defends PE13 } { @N: opens G column } 3. G7-E13: * { unfinished }
[Variant "C'escacs"] [Id "Cescacs-X01-en"] [Lang "en"] { Fool's mate } 1. H6-H12 ?!, I23-I19 ?! { @W: curious opening pawn } 2. JF6-C15 ?!, GH26-Z11 ?! { @W: bishop to cover 15 but neglect defence K } 3. L5-L7, NG25-L17 ?! 4. EH4-H8 ??, GZ11-L5 { @W: Removing E from H4 leaves K unattended } 5. I5-I9 ??, NL17-G9 { @W: Irrelevant movement ?? } { @B: Position N } 6. K4-K10 ??, GL5-H6# { @W: Irrelevant movement ?? } 0-3 { @N Must neglect JF6 and EH4 } { @W Attacks K with a knight's leap }
[Variant "C'escacs"] [Id "Cescacs-X01-en-V"] [Lang "en"] { Fool's mate } 1. H6-H12 ?!, I23-I19 ?! { @W: curious opening pawn } 2. JF6-C15 ?!, GH26-Z11 ?! { @W: bishop to cover 15 but neglect defence K } 3. L5-L7, NG25-L17 ?! 4. EH4-H8 ??, GZ11-L5 { @W: Removing E from H4 leaves K unattended } (4. G7-G13) (4. GD2-F6) 5. I5-I9 ??, NL17-G9 { @W: Irrelevant movement ?? } { @B: Position N } (5. K4-K10, GL5-H6+ .{ @W: Moving P threats GL5 with RI3 } .{ @B: Check without reinforcement will not succeed } .6. KG1-H4, GH6-I11 .(6. …, GH6xRI3) .(6. …, GH6-K12)) 6. K4-K10 ??, GL5-H6# { @W: Irrelevant movement ?? } (6. GH2-K6) (6. GD2-F6) 0-3 { @N Must neglect JF6 and EH4 } { @W Attacks K with a knight's leap }

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Development
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Diagonal move

A move that follows a line on the hextilled chequerboard. The hexes in a line are all of the same colour: white, black or coloured.

A movement that follows the line that cuts the hexes on a diagonal between two its opposite vertices.

It refers to the moves the Bishops can make.

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Double attack
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Double castling

Castling that uses the King and the two Rooks simultaneously.

Movement consisting of a King's Leap and, in the same movement, without giving up the turn, the displacement of the two Rooks to hexes that are orthogonally contiguous to each other, and both orthogonally contiguous to the hex where the is positioned. The three pieces move in a single move, and the King does not prevent the rooks from moving, but the five conditions required for castling must be met:

  • It is the first movement of each of the three participating pieces.
  • At the moment of the move there is no attack on the King (no check).
  • The target hexes are free; a capture cannot be made on a castling.
  • Both Rooks can make the orthogonal movement, without being hindered by any part.
  • Of course, the King cannot be left in a threatened hex.

Notation

The notation is constructed with a prefix indicating the pieces involved in the movement: KRR, the King and two Rooks. Separated by a hyphen, three letters are indicated: the first is the name of the King's target column, the second the King's Rook target column, and the third the Queen's Rook target column.
  • There are five double castling cases, each one prefixed with KRR. They are distributed over three different locations in King's leap:

    • KRR-EEF
    • KRR-FEE, KRR-FGG
    • KRR-HGG, KRR-HIH

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Double check
Check that is produced by the simultaneous threat of two pieces. This is a concrete case of a discovered double attack, where the attacks of both pieces are against the King.
  • In this situation, the King will have to move, because, being two attacking pieces, it will not be possible either to cover from the attack or to capture the attacking piece. It is possible that one of the attacking pieces can take advantage of the hex abandoned by the King to make a second check, protecting itself with the other piece taking part in the double check.
  • During a game, the opponent can be warned that the check is a double check when the level is beginner.
  • In the transcription of games it is important to indicate this, in order to highlight the situation and make it easier for people to read.

Notation

It is a case of check: At the end of the move the symbol + is added.

  • Although optional, it is highly recommended to add another + symbol, to inform that it is a double check, a situation in which the King will have to move.

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Double step

Option for pawns to advance two hexes simultaneously, when they do so by advancing straight forward on a column.

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Dragon
Víbria (Wyvern) de la senyera que Owain Glyndŵr va mostrar després de reclamar el reialme de Gal·les en The Last War of Independence. Imatge: Hogyncymru, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Víbria de Tarragona en el Festivitas Bestiarum de Tortosa.

The Wyvern (Dragon) is a piece that can be moved either as a Rook, or by a Knight Jump. Together with the Rooks and the Queen it is one of the major pieces in C'escacs.

Valuation

  • As a major piece, a King and a Wyvern (Dragon) can checkmate a lone King.
  • Their power is very similar to the power of the Queen: The Wyvern (Dragon) is preferable against the Rook, but the Queen is much better against the Pegasus.

Notation

The distinctive letter of the Dragon (Wyvern) is V (in Catalan Víbria, in French Vouivre). The W (Wyvern, in English or German) is accepted as an alternative letter.

The name

Chess is a game with medieval roots, possibly even with earlier origins. What could represent a force equivalent to the Queen, which is the most powerful piece on the board? The answer for me was obvious: a Dragon; actually a Wyvern, which in Catalonia is represented as a female Dragon.

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Draw

A draw is the result of a draw between the players in a game. It occurs:

  • Due to insufficient material, limited to cases where mate is not possible. Cases that only allow mate in certain positions, may end up as draw by agreement, or due to exhaustion of moves.
  • By agreement between the players, in which they are called draw by agreement.
  • By exhaustion of moves, applying the fifty-move rule or the seventy-five-move rule.
  • By repetition of the position, applying the rule of three repetitions or the rule of five repetitions. The repetitions, when they are not consecutive, may not be obvious, and there is no counting mechanism, but automated techniques (computers) allow interactive calculation, applying a hash function on the position, and comparing it very quickly with all the previous positions of the game to obtain a count of repetitions.

Valuation

Both players get one point:
1-1

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Draw by agreement
A player may offer a draw on his turn, after making his move, and the opponent shall reply before making his move. In the case of clock play, the draw offer will be made on the player's own time, before pressing the clock to make the timing change.

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Elephant
Moviments de l'elefant.
Els Escacs del sudest asiàtic li donen a l'alfil el moviment de l'elefant.
The Elephant is a piece that has only five moves, two orthogonally forward, and four diagonal moves that maintain the colour of the hexes where it is positioned, but the two orthogonal moves allow it to change colour, avoiding to be colour bound. Two of the diagonal moves allow him to move backwards, thus also avoiding this Pawn limitation. The Pawns, together with this piece, constitute the troop.

You can remember the five movements, thinking that the two forward movements draw the elephant's trunk, and the four diagonal movements, the legs.

It is a slow piece in the big C'escacs hextilled chequerboard, but its speed is equivalent to the speed of the Pawns. The piece is important in helping to create the Pawn structure, and, for this function, the speed is adequate.

As part of the troop, it cannot be regained through the promotion of a Pawn.

Valuation

The value is little more than a Pawn, particularly if you consider that it has none of the special features of Pawns: no promotion, no en passant capture and no capture of the scornful pawn. It is typically rated as two pawns.

Notation

The distinguishing letter of the Elephant is the letter E. The alternative name is Halberdier, and the alternative letter is H.

Considering that there is no specific Unicode character available for the CTL-FAN notation (two, one black and one white), the characters ☖ (U+2616) and ☗ (U+2617), originally reserved for Shogi, are adopted.

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En passant capture
Captura al pas.
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En prise
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Endgame
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Exchange
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Exchange, won/lost the
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Exhaustion of movements

The move counter is reset to zero each time a pawn is moved or a piece captured. This rule prevents a game from becoming infinite without a winner being decided.

  • Seventy-five move rule: A game is a draw after seventy-five full-moves without captures or pawn moves, i.e. one hundred and fifty half-moves.
  • Fifty-move rule: A player can demand a draw if fifty full-moves have elapsed during his turn without captures or pawn moves, i.e. one hundred half-moves.

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File

On a hextilled chequerboard, each side of a hex forms a file with the adjacent hex on this side, and successively with the next one, adjacent in the same direction. This file is extended in the same way with the previous adjacent hexes on the opposite side, together with the preceding ones in the opposite direction; therefore, each hexes belongs to three different files.

The files define the orthogonal movements, the movements of the Rook.

There are two types of files:

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File of pawns

Pawns positioned in a consecutive oblique file, so that they are positioned in consecutive columns and consecutive lines.

They constitute an impediment to orthogonal moves and half of the diagonal moves, without the structure being tied to any colour. This pawn structure requires a defence for each of the constituent pawns, because the pawns capture diagonally, and do not defend each other. These barriers formed by the files of pawns delimit the space of the players, being very useful, which is why they are generally built with the help of elephants for their defence.

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Fool's mate
[Variant "C'escacs"] [Id "Cescacs-X01-en-V"] [Lang "ca"] { Fool's mate } 1. H6-H12 ?!, I23-I19 ?! { @W: curious opening pawn } 2. JF6-C15 ?!, GH26-Z11 ?! { @W: bishop to cover 15 but neglect defence K } 3. L5-L7, NG25-L17 ?! 4. EH4-H8 ??, GZ11-L5 { @W: Removing E from H4 leaves K unattended } (4. G7-G13) (4. GD2-F6) 5. I5-I9 ??, NL17-G9 { @W: Irrelevant movement ?? } { @B: Positions N } (5. K4-K10, GL5-H6+ .{ @W: Moving P threats GL5 with RI3 } .{ @B: Check without reinforcement will not succeed } .6. KG1-H4, GH6-I11 .(6. …, GH6xRI3) .(6. …, GH6-K12)) 6. K4-K10 ??, GL5-H6# { @W: Irrelevant movement ?? } (6. GH2-K6) (6. GD2-F6) 0-3 { @N Must neglect JF6 and EH4 } { @W Attack K on knight jumping }

Fool's mate is the quickest possible checkmate, which can only happen if the white player plays extraordinarily badly. In C'escacs it happens in six moves, three very badly played by White, and some slightly contrived moves by Black to achieve mate with a knight and a pegasus. The attached record shows alternatives (in parenthesis) to White's three wrong moves; only one of these rectifications is sufficient to avoid the mate.

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Forced move

A move for which the player has no viable alternative. Also the promotion of a pawn awaiting promotion falls into the category of a forced move, since the rules do not allow any other move.

The term is also used, by extension:

  • A move that is the only one that does not involve a serious disadvantage for the player making it.
  • A sequence of moves in which a player's moves are forced moves, as in forced mate, or winning a piece in a forced manner.

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Fork
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Full move

A complete turn, consisting of White's move and Black's move. A player's turn is a half move, in computer chess also called a ply.

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Halberdier
Il·lustració de Lucas d'Heere (segle XVI), mostrant alabarders. Universiteitsbibliotheek UGent, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Alternative name for the Elephant piece. It allows to refer to the piece in languages that use the word elephant to refer to the bishop.

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Half-move

A full move is a turn by both players, White and Black. A turn by either White or Black is a half-move, or (in computer context) one ply.

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Hex (hextille)

Each of the hextilles of a hextiled chequerboard, hexagonals in shape; usually named hex as an abbreviation of hextile, but it will be of one of the three different colours of the coloured tessellation that forms the board:

Notación

Any hexes are identified by the column and the cross-line to which they belong.

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Hextilled chequerboard

Board made up of hexagonal cells that form a hexagonal tessellation in three colours. Each of the hexagonal cells is called hextiles, also named hexes as an abbreviation of hextile. When nothing is indicated, it will be a board in the shape of a regular hexagon, as in the case of C'escacs.

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Horitzontal line

Inconvenient synonym for the cross-lines.

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Horizontal (line)

Inconvenient synonym for the cross-lines.

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Illegal move

A move that is not allowed by the rules of chess.

  • In the event that an illegal move is discovered during a game, it must be rectified immediately.
  • If it is not rectified, and the illegal move is discovered later, the game is void, regardless of the direct consequences of the illegal move.

    It is necessary that the illegal move is recognised by both players; this may be due to a misinterpretation of the rules by the players, or if the game has been recorded.

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Illegal position

A position that is the result of a move not permitted by the rules or an incorrect starting position.

  • If an incorrect starting position is discovered, the game must be restarted.
  • In the event that an illegal move is discovered during a game, it must be rectified.
  • If an illegal move is discovered after the end of a game, the game is void.

See also

Translations

Insufficient material

In an endgame, when all the pawns have been captured, and one side has only the King left, and the other side has no major pieces:

  • If the player with the most material has only the King, alone, or with a minor piece, or an Elephant, no mate is possible, and the player is said to have insufficient material, and the game is a draw.
  • If the player with the most material has only one medium piece (Pegasus) or two minor pieces, or one minor pieces and an Elephant, or when the only pieces left are Elephants, there are only rare and few positions in which mate is possible, but with these pieces it is not possible to move the King into a mate position.
    • If the position does not allow an immediate glimpse of mate, it would also be a case of insufficient material, but it cannot be regulated as such, as there are positions that do allow mate. Generally, a draw will be agreed, or, if not, a draw will be produced when the moves are exhausted, applying the fifty-move rule (one hundred half-moves), or the seventy-five-move rule (one hundred and fifty half-moves).
To mate a lone King requires at least one of two options:

See also

Translations

King

The King is the most important piece in the game. It can move in any direction but only one square at a time. In any case, it cannot position itself on a square where it could be captured by an opponent's piece.

King's special gaits

The King has three special moves which, if it is not in check, it can make on its first move:

With the King's leap you can capture an opponent's piece, but not with castling.

Valuation

If the King is threatened by an opponent's piece (check), the attacked player must respond to the threat in one of the following ways:

  • Killing the opponent's piece.
  • Putting a piece between the opponent's piece and the King to protect him, but this is not possible if the attacker's threat is with a knight's jump.
  • Moving the King to a hex where it is not threatened.

If none of these options is possible, it is checkmate, and the player who has the King in a dangerous position loses the game.

Notation

The King's distinctive letter is K.

See also

Translations

King's leap
Salts del Rei.

A knight jump which the King can make on his first move, if he is not in check. With this move the King can capture an opponent's piece.

See also

Translations

King's Rook
Not yet translated

See also

Translations

Knight

The Knight is a minor piece with the characteristic knight jumping move; moreover, it is the only C'escacs piece that can gallop with the special ride move. This allows you a maximum of twelve different knight jumps, which allows you to capture your opponent's pieces, and, only for displacement, twelve different rides which do not allow you capture pieces.

Valuation

In C'escacs, the King and two Knights cannot checkmate a lone King, and a minimum of a Pegasus and a Knight, or a Pegasus and a Bishop, is required.

Notation

The letter identifying the Knight is N, but also C (as from Catalan, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian...) and S (Springer, German for jumper) are accepted as aliases.

See also

Translations

Knight jump
Salts del cavall.

The knight's own move; the move can also be made by the Wyvern and the Pegasus, as well as by the King in his first move.

A move consisting of the movement of one hex on a diagonal, followed by another orthogonal movement of a hex to one of the two hexes tangent to the line of the diagonal movement; the movement cannot be prevented by interposing a piece, and the move is said to be a jump.
  • Similarly, it can also be defined as an orthogonal movement followed by a diagonal one; anyway, it can be seen that the color of the destination hex is different from the source hex.

See also

Translations

Knight jump check
Check that is produced by the possibility of a knight jump move of an opponent's piece. It is significant, because the King has no opportunity to cover; the only options left are to capture the threatening piece, or to move the King.
  • During a game, the opponent can be informed that the check is a knight's jump check when the level is beginner.
  • In the transcription of games it is important to indicate this, in order to highlight the situation and make it easier for people to read.

Notation

Es un caso d'Jaque: Al final del movimiento se agrega el símbolo +.

  • Although optional, it is highly recommended to add the circumflex symbol ^, to inform that it is a Knight jump check, a situation in which you must capture the threatening piece, or move the King.

Veieu també

Traduccions

Knight move

See Knight jump.

Line

On a hextilled chequerboard, each of the vertices of a hex defines a line with a hex of the same colour, and successively with the next one in the same direction, together with the preceding ones in the opposite direction. Unlike the files, the hexes forming a line are not in contact, but are connected by the edge separating the two hexes of different colour adjacent to the edges forming the vertex.

The lines define the diagonal moves, the Bishop's moves. An important property is that all hexes belonging to a line are of the same colour; therefore, there are white lines, black lines and coloured lines.

There are two types of lines:

  1. The cross-lines cross the hexagonal board from left to right.
    • The cross-lines are numbered from zero to twenty-eight. The first (zero) and the last line (twenty-eight) are lines with only one hex.
    • They act by measuring the advance from White's half to Black's half, a division which effectively takes place on line fourteen, a line which is called the midline: the seven hexes which form the midline are equidistant from both sides.
  2. The rest of the lines are oblique lines.

See also

Translations

Lined up pawns

A pawn structure, positioned in an oblique line so that, from the first pawn, on which the defence of the structure depends, they defend one by one.

It is not a very effective structure, as it does not present many impediments to the opponent, except for one oblique file out of two, and the lines of the colour of the structure, leaving the lines of the other two colours unaffected. Of course, it also occupies the columns on which the pawns are located.

See also

Translations

Major piece

The most powerful court pieces in C'escacs; with the King and one of these pieces you can checkmate a lone King.

See also

Translations

Mate

Abbreviation of checkmate. Check in which the King has no option to evade the threat.

Notation

Even though it is a specific case of Check, it is the end of the game, and has its own symbol. It is indicated by the symbol #.

Valuation

  • For a win for White:
    3-0
  • For a win for Black:
    0-3

See also

Translations

Material
Not yet translated

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Translations

Median piece

In C'escacs, the court pieces, in addition to major and minor pieces, also include the median pieces; the only median piece is the Pegasus.

With the King, a median piece and a minor piece you can checkmate a lone King.

Ver también

Translations

Midline

The middle cross-line of the hextilled C'escacs chessboard, line 14. It is a line that divides the board into two halves:

  1. White half.
  2. Black half.

The midline is made up of seven coloured hexes. The hexes of the midline are equidistant from half of White and half of Black.

See also

Translations

Minor piece

The lower-powered court pieces in C'escacs. With only the King and two of these pieces it is not possible to checkmate a lone King.

See also

Translations

Mobility
Not yet translated

Comparison of maximum mobility

Orthodox Gliński C'escacs
Mobility Pieces Total Mobility Pieces Total Mobility Pieces Total
King 8 1 8 12 1 12 17 1 17
Queen 27 1 27 42 1 42 60 1 60
Wyvern - 0 - - 0 - 54 1 54
Rook 14 2 28 30 2 60 42 2 84
Pegasus - 0 - - 0 - 32 2 64
Knight 8 2 16 12 2 24 24 2 48
Bishop 13 2 26 14 3 42 20 3 60
Elephant - 0 - - 0 - 6 4 24
Pawn 2 8 16 2 9 18 5 11 55
Total 16 121 18 198 27 466
Ratio (64) 1.89 (91) 2.17 (169) 2.76

See also

Translations

Move

See either Half-move or Full move.

See also

Oblique file

Files that are not lengthwise files, i.e. that are not columns, are called oblique files.

The oblique files form a 60° inclination with the columns; symmetrically, another oblique file forms a -60° inclination with the same column. Each hexes belongs to one column and two oblique files.

See also

Translations

Oblique line

Lines that are not cross-lines are called oblique lines.

There are oblique lines in two directions:

  • Some form an inclination of 60º upwards with the cross-lines, -120º downwards.
  • Symmetrically, another oblique line forms an upward slope of 120° with the same cross-line, -60° in the downward direction.

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Translations

Opening
Not yet translated

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Translations

Orthogonal move

Orthogonal movement occurs by following a file of the hextilled chequerboard, either a column or an oblique file.

The reason for the name orthogonal is due to the orthogonal direction of the movement with respect to the edges of the hexes. But it also refers to the cubic coordinates, considering the hextilled chequerboard as a projection of a cube, thus making the three files of hexes, one for each pair of opposite edges, as the three different orthogonal directions of a cube. See the drawings of the cubic coordinates, on the Amit Patel Red Blob Games website.

Movement that starts from a hex leaving from one of its sides, towards the hex next to it; the movement can continue successively in the same direction.

Concerning the movements that Rook can make.

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Translations

Overload
Not yet translated

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Translations

Pawn
Moviments i captures del peó, sense incloure-hi moviments especials.

The Pawn is the minimum piece, with orthogonal displacement in the three forward directions, and diagonal capture, also forward, in two directions. It is a piece that has different movements for displacement and for captures.

The Pawn always advances forward; when a Pawn reaches the last hex on a column, the Pawn is promoted, provided there is a regainable piece available.

Pawn moves are always forwards, in the three orthogonal directions allowed by the hexes in which it is positioned. If the move is straight forward along the same column, a double step can be made, advancing two hexes.

  • In the initial positions of the pawns on the court this move can be a triple step, except on the central column (F). Nor is it possible on the flank A and L columns, outside the court; in fact these pawns already have advanced positions in one hex with respect to the rest.

The Pawn captures with diagonal move in any two hexes diagonally in front of the hex on which it is positioned, hexes of the same colour.

  • When a pawn makes a double move, or a triple move, if it crosses a hex where it could have been captured by an opponent's pawn, it can be captured on the next move as if it had been in this hex; this capture is called en passant capture.
  • When a pawn is facing an opponent's pawn on the same column and consecutive hexes, so that it is prevented from advancing up the column, if it makes a scornful, orthogonal oblique move, changing column, the pawn on the next move can be captured orthogonally by the opponent's pawn it was facing. This exceptional orthogonal capture is called a scornful pawn capture.

Valuation

The Pawn represents the unit on the valuation scale. Together with the Elephant they make up the bulk of the pieces called the troop.

Notation

The distinguishing letter of the Pawn is P, but it is the only piece for which it is usually obviated and implied.

See also

Translations

Pawn awaiting promotion

A Pawn that has reached the last hex on a column, but there is no regainable piece captured to make the promotion.

The Pawn will have to wait, without withdrawing from the board, until a valid piece is captured for promotion; when the opponent captures a valid piece, the next move is a forced move which is limited only to the promotion of the pawn, without allowing the player to move any pieces. The waiting pawn, when promoted, consumes the player's turn.

  • The pawn is on standby, of no use in the game, due to its advanced position on the last hex of the column.
  • If there is a pawn awaiting promotion, when a regainable piece is captured, promotion is mandatory on the next move, with no other action allowed, apart from making the promotion effective; one could say that a turn is lost.

A pawn awaiting promotion can be captured in the same way as any other piece. In fact, if the pawn is not on the central column, it will have one possible move, changing the column on which it is positioned, but it will remain as a pawn in waiting, unless there is a captured bishop of the colour of the new hex, in which case promotion will take place. A pawn in waiting has no capture move.

See also

Translations

Pawn structure

The configuration and placement of the pawns on the chequerboard. Since pawns are the least mobile of the chess pieces, the pawn structure is relatively static.

In the context of C'escacs

It is true that in C'escacs the pawns incorporate more mobility, but even so, the troop (pawns and elephants) has limited mobility. Elephants were introduced precisely as a tool for the construction of more solid pawn structures: the pawn files.

The pawn structure is mainly built with two structures:

  • File of pawns, positioned consecutively in an oblique file. Correctly defended they are the most useful structures, but some defence is required for each of the pawns, because they are not defended against each other; this task usually falls to the elephants.
  • Lined up pawns, where the pawns defend each other, forming a line from the first, undefended pawn. This type of structure is less strategically useful, but may seem more familiar, by analogy with orthodox chess.

Comparison with orthodox chess

In orthodox chess, a sequence of pawns placed on a diagonal interrupts the continuity of the horizontal and vertical files and the diagonals of the colour on which the structure is located, i.e. half of the diagonals: a highly effective structure, as also each pawn, except the first, is protected by the preceding one.

Lined up pawns, the C'escacs similar formation, lacks much of these properties: it leaves two colours still to cover, covering only one of the three colours, but also leaves oblique files open; the result is very ineffective. This problem appears in hexagonal chess, when pawns capture across diagonal lines.

This is the main reason in Gliński hexagonal chess for defining captures orthogonally for pawns: pawn structures in Gliński hexagonal chess are built orthogonally, in oblique files, making them effective.

In C'escacs, the files of pawns, orthogonal files, can be built using elephants to defend the pawns; therefore, one should rather speak of troop structure, since elephants are a fundamental part. An elephant can easily defend up to three wedge-shaped pawns, but it would be preferable not to overload the elephants, which are the weak links in the chain.

In the files of pawns the continuity of all the files, and half of the diagonal lines, is interrupted, so it can be said that it is a structure equivalent to the diagonal pawn sequences of orthodox chess, but, in C'escacs, with a higher cost, and also a slightly more precarious stability, considering the greater mobility of the pieces.

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Translations

Pegasus

The Pegasus is a piece that can move either as the Bishop, or with the knight's jump. In this way it is not colour bounded as the Bishop. It is a piece with superior power to the minor pieces but inferior to the major pieces, which is why it is considered the only medium piece in C'escacs.

Valoration

  • With the King, a Pegasus and a minor piece it is possible to checkmate a lone King. This justifies its classification as a medium piece.
  • The Queen is preferable against the Pegasus, but the Wyvern (Dragon) is preferable against the Rook.

Notation

The distinguishing letter of the Pegasus is G.

The name

The name of the Pegasus was chosen because of its behaviour on the hextilled chequerboard. In the same way that the modern Bishop initially took the name of messenger or runner, because of its ability to move around the board, the Pegasus has the ability to place a Knight quickly in a distant position; really a more powerful piece than a Knight, but with the property that gives it the speed of a Bishop, of a messenger or runner. The name, then, was obvious: a flying knight.

It must also be understood that, on the hexagonal board, the Knight is a slightly more powerful piece than the Bishop; the combination of the two is even a more powerful piece, but in addition it incorporates the speed of the Bishop, which is the Knight's great handicap on a board the size of C'escacs.

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Translations

Perpetual check
Not yet translated

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Translations

Piece

Each one of the chessmen that take part in the game, any of the movable figures. White and Black.

In C'escacs they are differentiated:

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Translations

Pin
Not yet translated

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Translations

Player's zone (White's / Black's)
Extension of the court to include all the promotion files. The centre hex (F14) is shared by the zones of both sides, the white zone and the black zone.
  • White zone, the rhombus: P7-F14-Z7-F0
  • Black zone, the rhombus: P21-F14-Z21-F28

It can also be seen as a restriction of the middle of the board, making it a little more specific to the most important hexes.

See also

Translations

Ply
Not yet translated

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Translations

Positional play
Not yet translated

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Translations

Prince

The Prince was a piece of C'escacs in its early days. There were two per player, but Elephants did not yet exist. Its move was the same as the King's, but the difference was that it was not royal. The Prince was changed to the Almogavar, and finally to the Elephant, adjusting the design of the game.

See also

Translations

Promotion

Regaining a captured piece, when a pawn reaches the last hex on a column, and the pawn is exchanged for a piece that can be regained.

It is said that a piece is regained, because the piece regained must be a piece previously captured by the opponent. The piece regained must be a court piece: Queen, Wyvern (Dragon), Rook, Pegasus, Knight or Bishop, but in the case of the Bishop, the colour of the Bishop regained must match in colour with a captured Bishop; therefore: A player cannot have two Bishops of the same colour in play. Elephants belong to the troop, and are not regainable.

Promotion is compulsory, but if there is no regainable piece, because there have been no captures or the captures have been limited to pawns, elephants, or bishops of a colour different from the colour of the hex in which the pawn promotes, the pawn must wait, without removing it from the board, until a piece valid for promotion, a regainable piece, is captured. This pawn awaiting promotion can be captured in the same way as any other piece. In fact, if the pawn is not on the final vertex, it will have one possible move, and could reach a hex of a colour for which there is a captured Bishop.

When there is a pawn awaiting promotion, the moment a regainable piece is captured, the pawn is automatically and compulsorily promoted, consuming the player's turn.

Rules of promotion

  • When a pawn reaches the last hex of a column:
  • When there is a pawn awaiting promotion:
    • As soon as a capture leaves a regainable piece available, on the next move promotion occurs automatically, consuming the player's move. No alternatives are left; only if there is more than one pawn awaiting promotion can the player decide which pawn to promote.
    • If a pawn awaiting promotion is not on the F-column, it can advance to a hex of another colour, reaching the last hex on another column. There may be a regainable bishop available for this colour, and the pawn is exchanged for the bishop.

See also

Translations

Queen
It can move like the Rook and the Bishop. Together with the Rooks and the Wyvern Dragon, it is one of C'escacs major pieces.

Valuation

  • As a major piece, checkmate can be made with a King and a Queen to a lone King.
  • The Wyvern (Dragon) and the Queen are about equally powerful. The Queen is preferable against the Pegasus, but the Wyvern (Dragon) is much better against the Rook.
  • King and Queen do not beat a King and Rook: 4.3% of the positions are drawn by continuous check, and 37.2% are drawn (no mate).
  • The King and a Queen defeat a King with a Pegasus.

Notation

The distinctive letter of the Queen is D. Q is accepted as an alternative letter.

See also

Translations

Queen's Rook
Not yet translated

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Translations

Regainable piece

A piece captured by the opponent that can be recovered by promoting a pawn. All the court pieces except the King are regainable, but in the case of the Bishop the rule applies that does not allow a player to have more than one bishop of each colour in play:

Unregainable pieces:
  • The King is not regainable. The King is not captured; if the King has no way to evade a threat, it is checkmate, and the player loses the game.
  • A Bishop is only regainable in the same colour as when it was captured. It is not allowed to have more than one bishop of the same colour in play; we can think of the three Bishops as three different figures.
  • Troops are not recoverable, nor are pawns, but neither are elephants.

See also

Translations

Repetition; Threefold/Fivefold

This refers to the repetition of a position, with the same pieces in play on the board, and all in the same positions. Repetition only occurs if the state is also the same, i.e. the castling ability of the pieces, which is lost if any of them move, and the availability of a en passant capture or a scornful pawn capture, moves which are only available immediately after the other side's pawn move that makes them possible.

  • The rule of five repetitions states that a game is a draw if the same position is repeated exactly five times, not necessarily consecutively.
  • However, a player can still demand a draw if the same position is repeated a third time in his turn; this is the so-called three repetition rule.

See also

Translations

Ride
Cavalcades del cavall; es mostren també els hexcacs intermedis, posicions del salt de cavall, que han de ser buits.

Movement without capture reserved only for the Knight. It consists of:

  • Two identical knight jumps, in a single move.
  • The intervening hex, the end of the first jump and the start of the next, must be free.
  • Also the final hex of the second jump must be free, as this movement does not allow a capture to be made.

There are a maximum of twelve possible rides, exactly one for each knight's jumping position.

Rationale

This move was introduced in C'escacs because of the large size of the hextilled chequerboard, to avoid the inconvenience of the knight's slow movement, and to allow it to participate more in the game.

See also

Translations

Rook
Detall de la Torre dels anomenats escacs de Carlemany Foto: Siren-Com, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Guardes i Bersekers eren les Torres en les peces d'escacs de Lewis. British Museum, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Roques de la festa del Corpus de València. Foto: Un valencià, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The Rook is a major piece that can move any number of hexes orthogonally but cannot jump over the other pieces. This orthogonal movement characteristic means that on a hextilled chequerboard in the shape of a regular hexagon, such as C'escacs, the number of hexes it can move (mobility) increases as it approaches the centre of the hextilled hexagonal board, thus increasing its power, becoming maximal in the central hex. This is different in orthodox chess, where the piece has the same mobility all over the board.

Valuation

  • The King and a Rook can checkmate a lone King.
  • A King and a Rook beats a King and a Bishop, without exception.
  • A King and a Rook beats a King and a Knight, except for a small number of cases (0.0019%) where a draw is achieved by continuous check.
  • King and Queen do not beat a King and Rook: 4.3% of the positions are draws per continuous check, and 37.2% are draws (no mate achieved).

Notation

The distinctive letter of the Rook is R. The alternative letter T is accepted.

Origins

Direct transliteration of the Persian word Rukh (chariot).

See also

Translations

Royal piece
Not yet translated

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Translations

Sacrifice
Not yet translated

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Translations

Scornful pawn

A pawn, which is facing an opponent's pawn on the same column and consecutive hex, in a way that prevents it from advancing up the column, is said to make a scornful move if it makes an orthogonal oblique move, changing column, and avoiding the opposition of the opponent's pawn.

See also

Translations

Scornful pawn capture
Captura del peó esquiu.

When a pawn facing on the same column and consecutive hexcacs with an opponent's pawn makes an oblique move avoiding the opponent's pawn, it can be captured on the next move by the pawn it was facing. The capture is made orthogonally, moving to the position where the opponent's pawn is; it is the only orthogonal move capture that pawns make.

The capture can only be made on the move consecutive to the oblique scornful move of the pawn.

See also

Translations

Sealed move
Not yet translated

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Translations

Side (Kingside and Queenside)
Not yet translated

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Translations

Simple castling

Castling using the King and a single Rook.

A move consisting of a King's Leap and, in the same move, without giving up the turn, the displacement of a Rook to a hex that is orthogonally contiguous to the hex where the King is positioned. Both pieces move in a single move, and the King does not prevent the Rook from moving, but the five conditions required for castling must be met:

  • It is the first movement of each of the two pieces involved.
  • At the moment of the move there is no attack on the King (no check).
  • The target hexes are free; a capture cannot be made on a castling.
  • Both Rooks can make the orthogonal movement, without being hindered by any part.
  • Of course, the King cannot be left in a threatened hex.

Notation

The notation is constructed with a prefix indicating the pieces involved in the move: KRK for castling with the King's Rook, and KRD for castling with the Queen's Rook. Separated by a hyphen, two letters are indicated, the first being the name of the King's destination column, and the second the Rook's destination column.

There is only one case that requires an additional indication, since KRK-HI indicates that the King's destination column is the H column, and the I column for the Rook; but when the King moves to the H column there are two positions on the I column for the King's Rook. KRK-HIO indicates that the Rook has only moved one hex, while KRK-HIOO indicates that the Rook has moved two hexes. Only castlings KRK-HIO and KRK-HIOO require this distinctive indication.

  • There are eleven castlings with the King's Rook, which are prefixed with KRK. They are distributed over four different locations in King's leap:

    • KRK-EE, KRK-EF
    • KRK-FE, KRK-FG
    • KRK-HIO, KRK-HIOO, KRK-HH, KRK-HG
    • KRK-IH, KRK-II, KRK-IK
  • There are eight castlings with the King's Rook, which are prefixed with KRK. They are distributed over four different locations in King's leap:

    • KRD-DD, KRD-DE
    • KRD-ED, KRD-EF
    • KRD-FE, KRD-FG
    • KRD-HH, KRD-HG

See also

Translations

Simplification
Not yet translated

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Translations

Skewer
Not yet translated

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Translations

Space
Not yet translated

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Translations

Stalemate

Leaving the opponent without the possibility of making any legal moves, which means that the game ends immediately, with a narrow victory; the stalemated player, who has been left with no moves, wins one point, and his opponent wins by the minimum and earns two points.

Valoration

  • Minimal victory for White (stalemates Black):
    2-1
  • Minimal victory for Black (stalemates White):
    1-2

See also

Translations

Strategy
Not yet translated

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Translations

Tactics
Not yet translated

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Translations

Triple step

Pawns have the option of advancing three hexes straight forward on the column when they are in one of the initial positions of the pawns on the court, except in the case of the central column (the F column); it makes no difference whether a pawn has been moved or not, and the ability is provided by the hex on which it is located.

  • The two flank columns (columns A and L) are outside the court and do not have this capacity.

Positions in which the pawns can advance three hexes:

  • Queenside, columns: E, D, C, B.
    • White: E7, D6, C5, B4.
    • Black: E21, D22, C23, B24.
  • Kingside, columns: G, H, I, K.
    • White: G7, H6, I5, K4.
    • Black: G21, H22, I23, K24.

Justification

  • The move allows the pawns to position themselves next to the midline on their first move; the most delayed pawns are those on the B and K columns, but after their first move, they can remain at a distance of one move from this line, a situation similar to the rest of the pawns.
  • On the central column (F) triple step is not allowed, to avoid the advantage of occupying the central hex (F14)the midline— on White's first move.
  • Pawns on the A and L flank columns are already advanced relative to each other's positions, and they are one hex closer to promotion.

Veieu també

Translations

TLPD

It allows a specific board position and its status to be recorded. It consists of six components, all six written on a single line, separated by spaces:

  1. Piece position: string written between slashes.
    • Each element is separated by an oblique line from the next.
    • It starts at line 28 of the hextilled hexagonal board, in a descending order.
    • Each line is numbered, separating the number from the content with a colon.
    • The values of each hexes are written down, in order: T,P,A...L,X,Z.
      1. Empty hexes are indicated by a digit, which represents the number of consecutive empty hexes.
      2. The pieces with their identifying letter, in capital letters for white pieces, and in small letters for black pieces.
    • Lines without parts are omitted; this can be done because the lines are numbered.
  2. Turn: w if it is White's turn, b if it is Black's turn.
  3. Castling and King's leap status: Up to three upper case characters for White: RKR, RK, KR, R, -. Similarly, then up to three lower case characters for Black. As a minimum we will get two characters, one for White and one for Black.
  4. Hex for en passant or scornful pawn capture: Three different cases occur, and a dash (-) will be used when none of the three applies
    1. For the scornful pawn it is sufficient to indicate the coordinate of the hex where the pawn that can be captured is currently positioned.
    2. For en passant capture, after the pawn coordinate, the at symbol (@) indicates the column in which it can be captured.
    3. If the pawn's move was a triple move, there are two columns where it can be captured, and both are indicated separated by a dash (-).
  5. Halfmove clock: It starts with a value of zero, and is incremented for every move that is neither a pawn move nor a capture; when a capture is made or a pawn is moved, the counter is reset to zero.
  6. Full-move number: Number of the current move. It starts with the value one and is incremented after each of Black's moves.

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Traducciones

Trap
Not yet translated

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Translations

Troop

In chess we differentiate between minor and major pieces, and in C'escacs, by analogy, we also talk about the medium pieces. In addition, there is another category: pawns. Elephants do not fall into any of these categories, because their characteristics as a slow and unaggressive piece, and the strategies for defending and battling with the pawns, are very different from those relating to the minor pieces.

Elephants being much closer to the characteristics of Pawns, the Troop category is defined, which includes Pawns and Elephants. The Troop shares the basic strategy of space delimitation.

Therefore, the pieces are classified into two main groups: Troops and Court pieces. The Troop is made up of:

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Translations

White

The name of the player who moves first, even if his pieces, which are always called the white pieces, are of another colour (usually a light colour).

Similarly, the light hexes on the hextilled chequerboard are called white hexes even if they are not literally white, although they are light-coloured.

  • We speak of black as opposed to white, both for the pieces and for the hexes, and the third colour of the hextilled chequerboard is called colour, as opposed to black and white.

The Bishop that moves through the white hexes is called the white bishop.

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Translations

Windmill
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Wyvern
Víbria de ferro colat (1825) en Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedfordshire. Imatge: DeFacto, CC BY-SA 4.0, via la Wikimedia Commons
Víbria de Tarragona en el Festivitas Bestiarum de Tortosa.

The Wyvern (Dragon) is a piece that can move interchangeably as the Rook, or with a knight jump. Together with the Rooks and the Queen, it is one of the major pieces in C'escacs.

Valuation

  • As a major piece, a King and a Wyvern (Dragon) can checkmate a lone King.
  • Its power is very similar to the power of the Queen: The Wyvern (Dragon) is preferable against the Rook, but the Queen is much better against the Pegasus.

Notation

The distinctive letter of the Wyvern (Dragon) is V (in Catalan Víbria, also in French Vouivre) W is accepted as an alternative letter.

The name

In reality the Dragon of C'escacs is a Wyvern, which in Catalonia is known as a type of Dragon that is characterised, among other things, for being female. Usually, the more familiar term Dragon is used, despite the Wyvern being a well-known beast in Catalonia, as well as in other places (England, Wales...), but it is a medieval fantasy mythology, and perhaps not everyone is interested. Note that the Wyvern has only two legs, instead of the four that the Dragon has.

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Translations

X-ray
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Translations

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